Physiological and medico-social research trends of the wave P300 and more late components of visual event-related potentials
To extend the application of the late waves of the event-related potentials (ERPs) to multiple modalities, devices and software the underlying physiological mechanisms and responses of the brain for a particular sensory system and mental function must be carefully examined. The objective of this study was aimed to study the sensory processes of the “human-computer interaction” model when classifying visual images with an incomplete set of signs based on the analysis of early, middle, late and slow ERPs components. 26 healthy subjects (men) aged 20–26 years were investigated. ERPs in 19 monopolar sites according to the 10/20 system were recorded. Discriminant and factor analyzes (BMDP Statistical Software) were applied. The component N450 is the most specialized indicator of the perception of unrecognizable (oddball) visual images. The amplitude of the ultra-late components N750 and N900 is also higher under conditions of presentation of the oddball image, regardless of the location of the registration points. In brain pathology along with the pronounced asymmetry of the wave distribution, reduction of the N150 wave and lengthening of its peak latency, a line of regularities were noted. These include–a pronounced reduction in peak latency P250 and N350, an increased amplitude of N350 in the frontal and central points of registration, a decrease in the amplitude of N450 in the left frontal cortex and its increase in the occipital registration points, activation of the occipital cortex at a time interval of 400–500 ms, as well as fusion later waves. We called such phenomena of the development of cognitive ERP in brain pathology “the incongruence of ERP components”. The results of the research are discussed in the light of the paradigm of the P300 wave application in brain-computer interface systems, as well as with the peculiarities in brain pathology.
Brain-computer interface; Categorization of images; Component P300; Event-related potentials; Oddball paradigm; Speller; Visual evoked potentials