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Hardware-software complex for seamless positioning of objects indoor and outdoor

Hardware-software complex for high-precision positioning of objects in the real-time mode using various geodata sources and ensuring a smooth transition between them.


The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), i.e., GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou, have long been widely used to locate in open space. Wi-Fi networks, cellular technologies of 2G / 3G / 4G standards, specialized video analytics systems, etc., partially solve the problem of positioning objects indoors.

Despite the rapid development of technology, serious problems remain in the field of positioning:

  1. Insufficient accuracy of determining the location of the object both indoors and outdoors
  2. Loss of location information when moving an object from a room to an open space and vice versa
  3. Dependence of positioning accuracy on environmental conditions: air temperature, humidity, dust / smoke, etc.
  4. Significant limitations of GNSS operation, up to the complete loss of signal in the premises.

The task of accurate positioning of an object both inside and outside is extremely relevant for such areas as manufacturing, construction, logistics, mining, commerce, medicine, sports analytics, etc. In all these sectors, constant monitoring and positioning of objects and personnel on the principle of “always and everywhere” is required. This task is one of the main in the design of innovative Smart City systems that are rapidly developing in cities around the world.

The task of the developers was to create a system of high-precision positioning of objects both indoors and outdoors, ensuring a smooth transition between different geodata sources.


The aim of developing an experimental model of a hardware-software complex of seamless positioning of objects is the implementation and debugging of methods and algorithms of high-precision seamless positioning that meet the following requirements:

  • Positioning accuracy - tens of (and in some areas very few) centimeters.
  • The speed of objects can reach tens of km / h, while positioning should be in the real-time mode.
  • The range is hundreds of meters.

Seamless and high positioning accuracy is achieved through intelligent combination of geodata from various sources, i.e., the Sensor Fusion approach. The location sources used are:

  • Radio Frequency system of in-house production
  • Inertial sensors: accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer.

The basis of an experimental model for seamless positioning of objects is a hardware radio-frequency 2D-positioning system that provides localization of objects inside and outside with centimeter accuracy. The radio frequency positioning system uses ultra-wide band radio technology (UWB) and is implemented using the principles of software-defined radio based on a universal SDR platform. This system is implemented as a separate experimental model of high-precision radio-frequency 2D positioning of objects.

Solution advantages:

  • Increasing positioning accuracy up to 2 cm (10 cm for analogues).
  • Increased positioning range up to 500 m (300 m for analogues).
  • Positioning of objects moving at high speed (up to 50 km / h) in the real-time mode.
  • Unique features of high-precision seamless positioning with a smooth transition when determining the position of the object in the interior and exterior space.
  • It is optimal for the use at strategically essential projects of a national scale (a completely Russian-made development).


Project Stages:

  1. Development of algorithms and EO APK for high-precision radio-frequency 2D positioning of objects indoors (2018).
  2. Development of algorithms and EO APK for seamless hybrid 3D positioning of objects indoors and outdoors (2019).
  3. Testing, debugging, check-out of the developed EO APK for seamless positioning (2020).

The developed experimental model of radio-frequency positioning consists of three anchors (Anchor A, B, C) and one tag (Tag). Anchors interact with a tag on a radio frequency UWB channel. Internally, they are synchronized via a fiber optic link (FOL - Fiber Optical Link) using the subnanosecond synchronization protocol. The tag periodically sends blink parcels. The anchors record the moments of time of arrival of the packages from the tag and send information to the server (system controller) via the Ethernet. The software on the server calculates the coordinates of the label in the local coordinate system using the TDoA (Time Difference of Arrival) algorithm and visualizes the position of the label.

The anchors and the label of the experimental model of radio-frequency positioning are implemented on the basis of a universal hardware node consisting of an RF front end - a high-performance SDR transceiver and a signal processor BPP (BaseBand Processor), whose functions are performed by a programmable logic chip (FPGA).

Technical advantages:

  • Subnanosecond synchronization of anchors.
  • UWB RF technology, provides maximum positioning accuracy and high range with low power consumption.
  • Real-time positioning of objects.
  • Sensor Fusion approach: smartly combined geodata from various types of sources.
  • Used geodata sources: RF positioning, GNSS, inertial systems.
  • SDR principle used in RF positioning system provides high flexibility and scalability.


Programming languages and frameworks C/C++, Qt
Hardware description languages Verilog, SystemVerilog
OS Windows, Linux
CVS Git (Gitlab, Atlassian Bitbucket)
Back-end Java 12, Spring Boot 2 (Core, Data, Security), Hibernate, Maven, PostgreSQL, Neo4J, Minio, Firebase
IDE Qt Creator
EDA Intel Quartus Prime

The project is supported by the BRICS Framework Network for Science and Innovation. With the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation in the framework of the Federal Target Program "Research and Development in Priority Directions for the Development of the Scientific and Technological Complex of Russia for 2014-2020."

Agreement on the provision of subsidies between the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education SPbPU and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation dated November 27, 2018 No. 14.584.21.0035.

Unique identificator: RFMEFI58418X0035

Project team

  • Hardware development team leader: A. Antonov
  • Software development team leader: A. Belyaevsky

Индустриальные партнёры

  • Industrial partner: Central Plywood Research Institute LLC
  • Foreign partners: Indian Rourkee Institute of Technology and East China Normal University